Determination of natural heating and cooling of intake air in underground mines
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Laurentian University, School of Graduate Studies , Sudbury, Ont
|Statement||by Olga S. Johnson.|
|Series||Canadian theses = Thèses canadiennes|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||xvi, 228 l. :|
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The mine heat load includes the effects of auto-compression of the air in the intake airways (the conversion of potential energy to enthalpy as the air flows down into the mine), heat flow into the mine from the surrounding rock, heat removed from the rock broken or any fissure water before they are removed from the intakes or working sections of the mine, and the heat resulting from the.
For that reason, all underground mines must be ventilated mechanically, whether coal mines (30CFR§) or metal and nonmetal mines (30CFR§).
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Natural ventilation, of course, often can be used to supplement the mechani - cal ventilation, at least in part. Historical Use of Natural Ventilation Natural ventilation has been observed File Size: 31KB.
In underground mines, the majority of the heat comes from sources such as geothermal gradient, equipment, auto-compression, groundwater, explosive, and blasting. Mining requires a robust constitution as mines often work against nature, descending deep underground, where temperatures can rise to between 60º and 70º at the rock face, explains heating.
Innovations in Underground Mining Ventilation 2 Hydraulic Compressed Air Cooling Hydraulic compressed air was historically used for large scale compressed air in mines throughout the world. An innovation currently in the demonstration phase has modernized the technology to provide cooling for deep mines in addition to compressed air.
Ultimately, the determination of the amount of airflow required for an underground mining operation or other sub-surface facility can depend on several factors, including the equipment fleet, ambient temperature, rock type, mining method and airway type (or.
Using the water stored in the mines would conservatively extend this option to an order of magnitude more sites. Based on current energy prices, geothermal heat pump systems using mine water could reduce annual costs for heating by 67% and cooling by 50% over conventional methods (natural gas or heating oil and standard air conditioning).
Permitted air velocities in different roadways 7 Quantity of air for degree I, II and III gassiness mines. 7 Instruments for measuring Air velocity in Mines 25 Number of measuring points on each diameter of a circular duct. 34 Access to Nandira Mine 39 Working districts in Nandira Mine Air in underground workplaces Air temperature Air sources Ventilating fans and equipment Control of air distribution underground Fumes from blasting Tailings filled stopes - atmospheric contaminants Ventilation system may be cut off in disused areas Ventilation plans for underground mines.
placement adjacent to the travelway to utilize flow-by intake air for cooling and minimize air wasted to the return.
A regulator was installed at the back end of each facility but utilized at a reduced rate of m. 3 /s each (5, cfm).This saved around 23 m. 3 /s (50, cfm) of the 28 m. of Determination of natural heating and cooling of intake air in underground mines book intake or intakes (or downcasts) through which the fresh air passes, the mine workings, and an exhaust or exhausts (or upcasts) where the air passes after having ventilated the working places of the mine.
Mine fans can be installed on the intake airshaft, return airshafts, or both, either on the surface or underground (Figure ). Section Volume of Air. The quantity of air reaching each working face where coal is being cut, mined, drilled for blasting, or loaded shall be at least 3, cubic feet per minute unless a greater quantity is required in the approved ventilation plan.
The quantity of air. “Modern ice cooling systems enable to achieve acceptable work conditions underground and enhance safety with productivity gains and spectacular energy savings.
“Heat and humidity are a constant issue and limiting factor in these underground mines. Getting deep, the. to the travelway. This utilized low-by intake air for cooling and minimized the air diverted to the return.
A regulator was installed at the back of each facility, but only m. 3 /s (5, cfm) of air was coursed to the return in each case. This saved around 23 m. 3 /s (50, cfm) of the 28 m. 3 /s (60, cfm). Central air-conditioning in mines with cooling power plants on the ground and transporting cooling energy to heat exchangers underground is designed when heat load of mine is more than 4 MW.
Rules for calculation of air requirements in underground mines The main parameter of the mine ventilation system is the flow of fresh air to be blown in the workplace. From the supply point of view of oxygen requirements for human consumption and internal combustion engines (diesel), there are specific rules to be observed which are adopted in.
• UNDERGROUND AIR COOLING SYSTEMS • secondary air cooling (intake and re-use) In hot mines, the air will be required to deliver cooling to hot zones or where equipment is working. The more scattered a mine layout is the more primary air will be required.
Generally, for shallower applications a ventilation factor of approximately kg. The determination of airflow quantity is both a difficult and essential step in the mine design expected to provide sufficient airflow for cooling of the air stream and the removal of any dust generated.
for underground mines has been undersized (insufficient flow), especially in cases where the impacts of. mines, large or deep underground mines, or mines with multipart local exhaust systems.
Definitions Air Course - a pathway through which air travels to an area. Anemometer (rotating vane) - a common field instrument used for measuring air velocity and flow, or wind speed (see Figure ).
Brattice. and heat exchangers cooling the mine’s intake air by direct or indirect contact with the cold water. This strategy applies to current ventilation and refrigeration systems in operating mines, as well as to the designs of future operations.
System energy efficiency is achieved by operating mines at optimum airflow quantities and cooling. Underground heat storage, or underground thermal energy storage (UTES), has storing temperature range from around 0 °C to up to °C. This operating temperature range is suitable for heating and cooling applications in HVAC.
addition to discussing the design of mine cooling systems and some of the methods of distributing "coolth" to the working areas of a subsurface facility.
The chapter concludes with a section on the opposite problem, that of increasing the temperature of the intake air for mines in cold climates. THE VAPOUR COMPRESSION CYCLE. The outdoor air was treated by the air heat exchanger before it entered into underground and the negative air pressure in the pithead produced by the original mine ventilation system conveyed all the treated outdoor air to the underground.
The schematic diagram of. K/km, respectively. Air conditions in the deepest mine in the world are discussed. Keywords: Air pressure, Air density, Mines, Mine air PACS No.: Dy, Fa, Bz.
Description Determination of natural heating and cooling of intake air in underground mines FB2
1 Introduction The deepest levels below the Earth’s surface where man has set foot are the depths of the deepest mines. Currently, the deepest mine in the world is the. In many regions of the world, flooded mines are a potentially cost-effective option for heating and cooling using geothermal heat pump systems.
For example, a single coal seam in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Ohio contains x L of water. The growing volume of water discharging from this one coal seam totalsL/min, which could theoretically heat and c homes.
Air cooling techniques in mining gained further recognition in the s including their utilization in the gold mines of South Africa and in the Kolar Goldfields of India.
However, it was the s that saw the the start of a real escalation of installed mine cooling capacity. temperature of any working area exceeding 32°C, an underground cooling method must be implemented.
Each of the available cooling methods has its own merits and demerits. The satisfactory function of the mine air-conditioning system provides the hot underground mines with the opportunity to.
energy use for space heating and cooling – Simplified method determination of air flow rates in buildings including infiltration energy requirements due to ventilation systems in buildings Ventilation for non residential buildings – Performance requirements for ventilation and room conditioning systems.*.
Aiming to improve the air quality in underground mines. 5G and future 6G terahertz absorbed by water vapour = heating. Mw Greek islands off the coast of western Turkey. Nov mines will be higher . So, India has a major challenge of reducing fatalities and maintaining mine worker‘s safety.
Challenges in underground environment In coal mines, the major emission is of methane. The methane released during and after mining operations is called Coal mine methane (CMM). v. 1 Survey of underground mine heat sources, James L. Fenton.- v. 2 Evaluating underground heat sources in deep mines, by Walter I.
Enderlin.- v. 3 Underground mine air cooling practices, by Floyd C.
Details Determination of natural heating and cooling of intake air in underground mines EPUB
Bossard and Koehler S. Stout. Series Title: United States.; Bureau of Mines.; Open file report: Other Titles: Survey of underground mine heat sources.The principal methods of cooling of deep and ultra deep mines are discussed.
It is shown that auto‐compression of ventilation air is a deciding factor governing the choice of surface or underground cooling of ventilation air.
In the case of deep and ultra deep mines, the use of chilled service water and ice slurry has shown to be the most.Historically these stopes were mainly used for heating, since the mines in which they were installed were not deep enough to require ventilation air cooling.
Heating and cooling process The air is heated in the stope by spraying warm return service water from the mine, at about 10°C, onto the sub-zero cold intake ventilation air.
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